[5] Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola, and Kulothunga Chola I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia. The last period of Chola tradition was in the middle of 1070 AD-1279 AD which was known to be the Later Cholas. They thoroughly exploited the lack of unity among the Tamil kingdoms and alternately supported one Tamil kingdom against the other thereby preventing both the Cholas and Pandyas from rising to their full potential. [241] Parthiban Kanavu was also serialised in the Kalki weekly during the early 1950s. [21] In Tamil lexicon Chola means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of Pandya or the old country. [156] Vocational education was through hereditary training in which the father passed on his skills to his sons. [225] A Chola sovereign called Krimikanta Chola is said to have persecuted Ramanuja. p.15, The State at War in South Asia by Pradeep Barua p.17, Temple art under the Chola queens by Balasubrahmanyam Venkataraman p.72, Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations by Tansen Sen p.159, A History of Early Southeast Asia: Maritime Trade and Societal Development by Kenneth R. Hall, Aryatarangini, the Saga of the Indo-Aryans, by A. Kalyanaraman p.158, India and Malaya Through the Ages: by S. Durai Raja Singam, sfnp error: no target: CITEREFIsmail1988 (, Relationship of the Cholas with the Chinese, Looking for the Prehispanic Filipino: and other essays in Philippine history, "The Telugu Cholas of Konidena (A.D. 1050-1300) [Part 1]", UNESCO World Heritage sites – Chola temples, South-East Asia campaign of Rajendra Chola I, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chola_dynasty&oldid=994201492, 1st-millennium BC establishments in India, States and territories disestablished in 1279, States and territories established in the 4th century BC, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2015, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2015, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2015, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 15:58. He started trade missions to China and other places for international trade. The Chola rulers issued their coins in gold, silver and copper. Abhinava Dandi Ketana wrote Dasakumaracharitramu, Vijnaneswaramu and Andhra Bhashabhushanamu. Although the main deity in the temple is Shiva there are also other deities prayed here, such as Durga, Surya and Vishnu, to name a few. Then the former feudatories like the Hoysalas, Yadvas, and Kakatiyas steadily increased their power and finally replaced the Chalukyas. [123][124], The Chola navy was the zenith of ancient India sea power. He had many great feats of victory including the defeat of the Pala King that ruled Bengal and Bihar. Parantaka I also defeated the Rashtrakuta dynasty under Krishna II in the battle of Vallala. [102] Some of the output of villages throughout the kingdom was given to temples that reinvested some of the wealth accumulated as loans to the settlements. [92][93] The Hoysalas were routed from Kannanur Kuppam around 1279 by Kulasekhara Pandiyan and in the same war the last Chola emperor Rajendra III was routed and the Chola empire ceased to exist thereafter. [221] Rajaraja Chola I patronised Buddhists and provided for the construction of the Chudamani Vihara, a Buddhist monastery in Nagapattinam, at the request of Sri Chulamanivarman, the Srivijaya Sailendra king. [242] More recently, Balakumaran wrote the novel Udaiyar, which is based on the circumstances surrounding Rajaraja Chola's construction of the Brihadisvara Temple in Thanjavur. Herrschafts- und Einflussgebiet der Chola um 1050 Das tamilische Chola-Reich (manchmal auch Chozha-Reich) war eines der bedeutendsten indischen Königreiche und gilt bis zum heutigen Tag als das einflussreichste hinduistische Reich. [116], The Chola rulers built several palaces and fortifications to protect their cities. He was credited because of his two achievements − [174][175], According to the Malay chronicle Sejarah Melayu, the rulers of the Malacca sultanate claimed to be descendants of the kings of the Chola Empire. [150] The Ulavar community were working in the field which was associated with agriculture and the peasants were known as Kalamar. [144] Rajendra Chola I dug near his capital an artificial lake, which was filled with water from the Kolerun and the Vellar rivers. So naturally, the Hoysalas found it convenient to have friendly relations with the Cholas from the time of Kulothunga Chola III, who had defeated Hoysala Veera Ballala II, who had subsequent marital relations with the Chola monarch. A Later Chola king, Rajadhiraja Chola II, was strong enough to prevail over a confederation of five Pandya princes who were aided by their traditional friend, the king of Lanka, this once again gave control of Lanka to the Cholas despite the fact that they were not strong under the resolute Rajadhiraja Chola II. However, this is more of a direction to the Shaivite community by its religious heads than any kind of dictat by a Chola emperor. A commonly held view is that Chola is, like Chera and Pandya, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity. Thanjavur … The period covered by the Sangam poetry is likely to extend not longer than five or six generations. The roads through Tamil Nadu are busy and crowded, with everyday and unusual sights that make for interesting stops. Not only did the Cholas outlast Ashoka's Mauryan Empire, they continued to rule until 1279 CE—more than 1,500 years. The Cholas left a lasting legacy. Tamil traders encroached on the Srivijayan realm traditionally controlled by Malay traders and the Tamil guilds' influence increased on the Malay Peninsula and north coast of Sumatra. Built by the Cholas in the 9th century CE, with four gateways and a colonnaded tank – the eastern gateway depicting the 108 hand and feet movements in the classic Bharatnatyam dance – it houses the original Shiva Nataraja image that depicts Shiva as the Lord of Dance. Historic records exist thereafter, including inscriptions on temples. The largest and tallest of all Indian temples of its time, it is at the apex of South Indian architecture. Tamil was the medium of education for the masses; Religious monasteries (matha or gatika) were centres of learning and received government support. Land revenue and trade tax were the main source of income. [38]As per inscriptions found in and around Thanjavur, the kingdom was ruled by Mutharaiyars / Muthurajas for three centuries. As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE. [160] The Cholas, being in possession of parts of both the west and the east coasts of peninsular India, were at the forefront of these ventures. [122] The army consisted of people from different castes but the warriors of the Kaikolar and Vellalar castes played a prominent role. The most important weaving communities in early medieval times were the Saliyar and Kaikolar. Chola Dynasty was a Tamil dynasty of southern India. The earliest datable references to the Chola are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire (Ashoka Major Rock Edict No.13 ). [133] During the Chola period silk weaving attained a high degree and Kanchipuram became one of the main centres for silk. The Chola Empire was founded by Vijayalaya. Nobody knows exactly when the first Chola kings took power in the southern point of India, but certainly, the Chola Dynasty was established by the third century BCE, because they are mentioned in one of Ashoka the Great's stelae. At the top of this economic pyramid were the elite merchant groups (samayam) who organised and dominated the regions international maritime trade. [168], There was tremendous agrarian expansion during the rule of the imperial Chola Dynasty (c. 900-1270 AD) all over Tamil Nadu and particularly in the Kaveri Basin. [213], Of the devotional literature, the arrangement of the Shaivite canon into eleven books was the work of Nambi Andar Nambi, who lived close to the end of the 10th century. [121] Particularly the famous Wootz steel, which has a long history in south India dating back to the period before the Christian era, seems also be used to produce weapons. [citation needed] Two names are prominent among those Chola kings known to have existed who feature in Sangam literature: Karikala Chola and Kocengannan. [159] The south Indian guilds played a major role in interregional and overseas trade. The Cholas were the subject of the 2010 Tamil-language movie Aayirathil Oruvan. Crimes of the state, such as treason, were heard and decided by the king himself; the typical punishment in these cases was either execution or confiscation of property. [89] They also dispossessed the Hoysalas, by defeating them under Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan at Kannanur Kuppam. The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India. The template for these and future temples was formulated by Aditya I and Parantaka. [220] Parantaka I and Parantaka Chola II endowed and built temples for Shiva and Vishnu. Rajaraja Chola I was a ruler with inexhaustible energy, and he applied himself to the task of governance with the same zeal that he had shown in waging wars. Some of the major dynasties of medieval south India - Chalukya, Pallava, Pandya, Rashtrakuta, and Chola - seems to have conquered the Chera or Kerala country. [173] Examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout Southeast Asia owe much to the legacy of the Cholas. A Chola king, known as Elara, conquered Sri Lanka and ruled over it for about 50 years during the middle of the 2 nd century B.C. [88], The Pandyas steadily routed both the Hoysalas and the Cholas. English: The Chola Dynasty — a Dravidian Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily on the Southern Indian Subcontinent from the 4th century BCE to the 13th century CE. The Chola army was spread all over the country and was stationed in local garrisons or military camps known as Kodagams. [226] However, according to "Koil Olugu" (temple records) of the Srirangam temple, Kulottunga Chola II was the son of Krimikanta Chola. [167] Probably, the motive behind Rajendra's expedition to Srivijaya was the protection of the merchants' interests. Rajendra Chola I or Rajendra I was a Tamil Chola emperor of South India who succeeded his father Rajaraja Chola I to the throne in 1014 CE.During his reign, he extended the influence of the Chola empire to the banks of the river Ganga in North India and across the Indian ocean to the West and South East Asia, making the Chola Empire one of the most powerful maritime empires of India. It discusses all five branches of grammar and, according to Berthold Spuler, is still relevant today and is one of the most distinguished normative grammars of literary Tamil. [109][110][111] A number of kurrams constituted a valanadu. But a few most outstanding may be briefly mentioned. [184][185], Temple building received great impetus from the conquests and the genius of Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola I. [68] With the occupation of Dharwar in North Central Karnataka by the Hoysalas under Vishnuvardhana, where he based himself with his son Narasimha I in-charge at the Hoysala capital Dwarasamudra around 1149, and with the Kalachuris occupying the Chalukyan capital for over 35 years from around 1150–1151, the Chalukya kingdom was already starting to dissolve. [7] The Chola fleet represented the zenith of ancient Indian sea power. [18] Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273 BCE–232 BCE) inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him.[c]. There were also local organisations of merchants called "nagaram" in big centres of trade like Kanchipuram and Mamallapuram. The Ashokan inscriptions speak of the Cholas in plural, implying that, in his time, there were more than one Chola. It is believed that this dynasty was founded by Karikala. [108], At local government level, every village was a self-governing unit. During the past 150 years, historians have gleaned significant knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts, temple and copperplate inscriptions. [183] The Chola school of art also spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia. Main image picture credits: Tanjavur Palace Devasthanam. [34][35][36] They were displaced by the Pallava dynasty and the Pandyan dynasty in the 6th century. The market structure and economic policies of the Chola dynasty were more conducive to a large-scale, cross-regional market trade than those enacted by the Chinese Song Dynasty. The direct line of Cholas of the Vijayalaya dynasty came to an end with the death of Virarajendra Chola and the assassination of his son, The only evidence for the approximate period of these early kings is the Sangam literature and the synchronisation with the. The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India. [179] Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. [128] The Chola economy was based on three tiers—at the local level, agricultural settlements formed the foundation to commercial towns nagaram, which acted as redistribution centres for externally produced items bound for consumption in the local economy and as sources of products made by nagaram artisans for the international trade. Many diseases were cured by the doctors of the hospital, which was under the control of a chief physician who was paid annually 80 Kalams of paddy, 8 Kasus and a grant of land. Committees like eri-variyam (tank-committee) and totta-variam (garden committees) were active as also the temples with their vast resources in land, men and money. [115] There were regiments of bowmen and swordsmen while the swordsmen were the most permanent and dependable troops. [105], In almost all villages the distinction between persons paying the land-tax (iraikudigal) and those who did not was clearly established. [l], The Cholas' system of government was monarchical, as in the Sangam age. Thereafter, until the reign of Vikrama Chola in 1133 CE when the Chola power was at its peak, these hereditary lords and local princes virtually vanished from the Chola records and were either replaced or turned into dependent officials. Around it is four temples and several pavilions, along with devotees who bathe in its sacred waters. He integrated his empire into a tight administrative grid under royal control, and at the same time strengthened local self-government. [205][page needed] He imports into his narration the colour and landscape of his own time; his description of Kosala is an idealised account of the features of the Chola country. Archaeological News He led successful expeditions to the north as attested by his epigraphs found as far as Cuddappah. Virarajendra Chola defeated Someshvara II of the Western Chalukya Empire and made an alliance with Prince Vikramaditya VI. [103] The Chola Dynasty was divided into several provinces called mandalams which were further divided into valanadus, which were subdivided into units called kottams or kutrams. They established educational institutions and hospitals around the temple, enhanced the beneficial aspects of the role of the temple, and projected the royalty as a very powerful and genial presence. [143], There existed a brisk internal trade in several articles carried on by the organised mercantile corporations in various parts of the country. The Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia. There was a well-developed and highly efficient system of water management from the village level upwards. [179][187][page needed] The Brihadisvara Temple, the temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram were declared as World Heritage Sites by the UNESCO and are referred to as the Great living Chola temples. Required fields are marked *, Private tours to India & the subcontinent, © Quo Vadis Travel 2017 . The history of the Cholas falls into four periods: the Early Cholas of the Sangam literature, the interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the Imperial medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya (c. 848), the dynasty of Vijayalaya, and finally the Later Chola dynasty of Kulothunga Chola I from the third quarter of the 11th century. The latter finds mention in the vaishnava Guruparampara and is said to have been a strong opponent of the vaishnavas. Mentions in the early Sangam literature (c. 150 CE)[a] indicate that the earliest kings of the dynasty antedated 100 CE. During the reign of Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Virarajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I the Chola armies invaded Sri Lanka, the Maldives and parts of Southeast Asia like Malaysia, Indonesia and Southern Thailand[72] of the Srivijaya Empire in the 11th century. [48] Vijayalaya, possibly a feudatory of the Pallava dynasty, took an opportunity arising out of a conflict between the Pandya dynasty and Pallava dynasty in c. 850, captured Thanjavur from Muttarayar, and established the imperial line of the medieval Chola Dynasty. The period of the story lies within the interregnum during which the Cholas were in decline before Vijayalaya Chola revived their fortunes. The Chola Empire, though not as strong as between 850–1150, was still largely territorially intact under Rajaraja Chola II (1146–1175) a fact attested by the construction and completion of the third grand Chola architectural marvel, the chariot-shaped Airavatesvara Temple at Dharasuram on the outskirts of modern Kumbakonam. Chola dynasty: bloggers2018219 Uncategorized December 31, 2018 December 31, 2018 1 Minute Chola dynasty was one of the longest- ruling dynasties in history.The capital of early cholas are Poompuhar, Urayur,Tiruvarur. The king was the supreme leader and a benevolent authoritarian. [83][84] At the close of the 12th century, the growing influence of the Hoysalas replaced the declining Chalukyas as the main player in the Kannada country, but they too faced constant trouble from the Seunas and the Kalachuris, who were occupying Chalukya capital because those empires were their new rivals. The second Chola King, Aditya I, caused the demise of the Pallava dynasty and defeated the Pandyan dynasty of Madurai in 885, occupied large parts of the Kannada country, and had marital ties with the Western Ganga dynasty. This was known as the middle age Cholas. The whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of three centuries and more between 907 and 1215 AD. [105], Before the reign of Rajaraja Chola I huge parts of the Chola territory were ruled by hereditary lords and local princes who were in a loose alliance with the Chola rulers. The guild was one of the most significant institutions of south India and merchants organised themselves into guilds. [222][223], During the period of the Later Cholas, there are alleged to have been instances of intolerance towards Vaishnavites[224] especially towards their acharya, Ramanuja. Kaveripattam was its capital. The Pandyas first steadily gained control of the Tamil country as well as territories in Sri Lanka, southern Chera country, Telugu country under Maravarman Sundara Pandiyan II and his able successor Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan before inflicting several defeats on the joint forces of the Cholas under Rajaraja Chola III, and the Hoysalas under Someshwara, his son Ramanatha[80] The Pandyans gradually became major players in the Tamil country from 1215 and intelligently consolidated their position in Madurai-Rameswaram-Ilam-southern Chera country and Kanyakumari belt, and had been steadily increasing their territories in the Kaveri belt between Dindigul-Tiruchy-Karur-Satyamangalam as well as in the Kaveri Delta i.e., Thanjavur-Mayuram-Chidambaram-Vriddhachalam-Kanchi, finally marching all the way up to Arcot—Tirumalai-Nellore-Visayawadai-Vengi-Kalingam belt by 1250. It speculates the whereabouts of Kulothunga during this period. Other names in common use for the Cholas are Killi (கிள்ளி), Valavan (வளவன்), Sembiyan (செம்பியன்) and Cenni. They had their own mercenary army for the protection of their merchandise. After this, he entered into a marital alliance with Veera Ballala II (with Ballala's marriage to a Chola princess) and his relationship with Hoysalas seems to have become friendlier.[67][j]. Kocengannan, an Early Chola, was celebrated in both Sangam literature and in the Shaivite canon as a Hindu saint. Vijayalaya was the founder of the Imperial Chola dynasty which was the beginning of one of the most splendid Empires in Indian history. Inscriptions of 890 refer to his contributions to the construction of the Ranganatha Temple at Srirangapatnam in the country of the Western Gangas, who were both his feudatories and had connections by marriage with him. [94] He was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces, but he rebelled and established his own independent rajahnate. 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